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Furniture Styles
Early American
William and Mary
Queen Anne
Pennsylvania Dutch
Robert Adam
Duncan Phyfe
American Empire
Arts and Craft
Art Nouveau
Scandinavian Contemporary

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Pennsylvania Dutch (1720-1830)

Pennsylvania Dutch is a simple, utilitarian American country style of furniture with Germanic influences. It is characterized by colorful folk painting on case furniture.

Simple - Straight lines, simple design, and little ornamentation.

(Contemporary style shown)

Chair Arms
Simple turning or flat - Arms are straight with a simple turning or are flat.
Straight - Arms are straight and perpendicular to the chair.

Chair Back Material
Wood - Solid wood, horizontal slats, vertical slats, or vertical splats.

Chair Back Shape
Ladderback or Slatback - Equally spaced horizontal flat slats, either straight or curved.
Solid - One piece or solid panel chair back.

Chair Leg
Cabriole - Curved leg in the shape of an animal's leg. The cabriole leg increased the stability of seating pieces and reduced the need for underbracing.
Round - Round, usually shaped or turned leg.
Simple turning - turned leg with a few types of turnings.
Square - Flat surfaced leg on all sides.
Straight - Straight leg, vertical to chair seat.
Tapered - Straight leg gradually decreasing in width.

Chair Seat Material
Leather - Animal hide.
Rush - Woven rush.
Upholstered - Cushioned and covered with fabric.
Wood - Various types of wood.

Chair Seat Shape
Square - Square shaped seat.

Drawer Pull
Loop Handle - Bail handle without a back plate, 3.5 to 4.5 inches wide.
Turned Wooden Knob - Elongated, turned wooden knob, often 3 inches long and 1.25 inches in diameter.
Wooden Mushroom-Shaped Knob - Mushroom-shaped wooden knob, often 1 inch high and 1.5 to 2.5 inches in diameter.

Leather - Material made from the tanning of animal hides.

Paint - Opaque, pigmented finish that obscures the grain of the wood.
Wax - Paste finish over a sealer, stain, or bare wood.

Ball - Rounded ball-shaped foot.
Bun - Rounded foot, flatter than a ball foot.
Continuation of leg - Leg does not terminate into a foot.
Pad - Simple, rounded carved foot.

Hardware Material
Iron - Grayish-brown metal with a dull finish.
Wood - Various types of wood, carved or turned.

Dovetail - An interlocking wood joint in which a series of wedge-shaped projections fits into a series of alternating grooves.
Mortise and tenon - Wood joint in which a projecting tenon of one board is fitted into a mortise or hole of another board.

Cyma or S-Curve - S-shaped curve, partly concave and partly convex.
Straight - Straight lines.

Floral - Flowers, such as roses, sunflowers, and tulips.
Sunflower - Daisy-like flower.
Tulip - Cup-shaped flower.

Carving - Cutting or chipping the surface of wood to create a shape or design.
Paneling - Raised, recessed, and framed panels.
Spindle - Turned pieces, split vertically often affixed to the front of case furniture.
Stenciling - Painting through a template to create a shape or design on the underlying wood surface.

Medium - Moderate dimensions.

(Queen Anne style shown)

Moderate - Moderately proportioned stretchers.

(William and Mary style shown)

Black Walnut - Dark brown American hardwood with a wide range of figures.
Oak - Gray-brown American hardwood.
Pine - Yellow to pink-brown American softwood.
Tulipwood - Pink-yellow hardwood with red striping used in inlays; also known as pinkwood.

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